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  • Action Verbs for Student Learning Outcomes

    This chart can be a helpful starting point for programs developing or revising student learning outcomes. An outcome should start with an action verb that suggests a particular measurement method. For instance:

    • An outcome starting with the verb "list" could be measured by an examine question in which the students produce a list of desired knowledge or skills they have learned.
    • An outcome starting with the verb "demonstrate" suggests that students would have to perform some kind of demonstration of a skill they have learned (e.g. a scientific experiment, acting skill, or artistic technique.)

    This list is not exhaustive, but is designed to initiate discussion about learning outcomes.

    Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis   Evaluation
    define describe apply analyze arrange appraise
    list discuss demonstrate appraise assemble assess
    name explain dramatize calculate collect choose
    recall express employ categorize compose compare
    record depict illustrate criticize construct estimate
    relate locate interpret debate create evaluate
    underline recognize operate diagram design judge
    label report practice differentiate formulate measure
    quote restate schedule distinguish manage rate
    locate review sketch examine organize revise
    match translate use experiment plan score
    cite     inspect prepare select
    reproduce     question propose value
    identify     relate combine defend
    state     solve integrate justify